Trade Unions

Freedom to Join and Form a Union

Constitution and labour law provide for freedom of association and allow workers and employers to join and form unions. (Section 3 of Industrial Relations Act 2012). Constitution also supports freedom of association, subject to any reasonable restrictions imposed by law in the interest of sovereignty or integrity of Pakistan, public order or morality (art. 17). IRA 2012 includes many exclusions which in effect deprive workers of the right to form and join unions. 

Freedom of Collective Bargaining

Inudstrial Relations Act 2012 (section 19 onwards) allows employees to bargain collectively through their representatives.

Right to Strike

Right to strike is not considered as fundamental right. Moreover, go-slow actions are consider an unfair labour practice, strikes longer than 30 days can be prohibited by government order, and a party or the government can unilaterally compel arbitration, undermining the right to strike (Industrial Relations Act 2012, section 41-48).

Regulations on Trade Unions

  • The Constitution of Pakistan, 1973 (amended in 2012)
  • Industrial Relations Act, 2012
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